Screening for YCM in men with infertility problems is an important study, the outcome of which determines the clinical management strategy of the patient using assisted reproductive technologies (TESE, IVF, ICSI).
It should be noted that AZFc is the most frequent deletion type among all microdeletions. It accounts for 60-80% of all deletions. At the same time, in contrast to the AZFa and AZFb microdeletions, in the case of AZFc a man has the highest chances of having a biological child through assisted reproductive technologies. In cases of AZFa and AZFb microdeletions, the probability of pregnancy is very low. Therefore, the results of the YCM study can play an important role in determining the right course of treatment.
When a man has non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), microsurgical sperm aspiration from the testicle or epididymis is considered the gold standard of treatment. In non-obstructive azoospermia caused by Y chromosome microdeletions, the rate of successful sperm retrieval depends greatly on the region of AZF that is absent. According to the studies, deletions in the AZFc region are associated with the highest sperm retrieval rate amounting to 50-80%, while in cases of AZFa and AZFb there are reported unfavorable sperm retrieval rates and clinical outcomes. Moreover, there may also be simultaneous microdeletions of several AZF regions, for example, AZFbc or AZFabc, resulting in the same unfavorable prognosis. In order to avoid ineffective surgical intervention, surgical sperm aspiration is not recommended for patients with verified presence of deletions in the AZFa, AZFb, AZFabc, or AZFbc regions.